Sunday, July 14, 2024

The Enduring Contributions of King Mahendra

While reigning over Nepal from 1955 to 1972, contribution of King Mahendra remains an influential. So let’s look at the enduring contributions of King Mahendra in history of Nepal.

As the monarch during a period of significant transformation, his rule was marked by both progressive initiatives. His contentious decisions that continue to shape the nation’s identity and political landscape. King Mahendra’s influence on the nation is undeniable, as seen by the many achievements he led. His relentless commitment to advancement spans a wide range of industries, leaving a lasting mark on the country’s development environment.

His accomplishments range from establishing leaps in agriculture and tourism development to enormous initiatives such as the construction of the Trishuli Dam and the Koshi River Barrage, to meet critical irrigation needs. Join me as we explore the incredible accomplishments that define his legacy.

Development Activities

Before 1956, Nepal relied on India’s central bank for foreign currency. King Mahendra, change this system by founding Nepal’s central bank in 1956. This decision made the country independent in currency matters by 1964. He then introduce the new Nepalese rupee, strengthening the economy with new financial institutions.

The Nepal Industrial Development Corporation supported industries, and King Mahendra built infrastructure. While been aided by the US, there begin setting up of Industrial Estates. He created bodies like Salt Trading Corporation, National Trading Limited, and issued Nepal’s first government bond in 1964.

His contribution towards healthcare begin as he establish Kanti Children’s Hospital, a maternity hospital, and Malaria Eradication in Terai. He iss Nepal’s first king to visit China, fostering economic cooperation and growth. This led to diplomatic ties with China and help in improve the economy of the country. King Mahendra’s initiatives significantly shaped Nepal’s self-reliance and development.

Agricultural Development

During his rule (1955-1972), King Mahendra prioritise agriculture and tourism development. He formed key institutions like the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Birgunj Sugar Mill, and Agricultural Development Bank, modernising farming.

He focused on apple farming in Mustang and Baitadi, creating the Temperate Horticulture Development Center to spread successful fruit varieties to local farmers. To manage firewood, the Timber Corporation of Nepal Limited was established. The Janakpur Cigarette Factory aimed to cut cigarette imports, promoting tobacco cultivation. King Mahendra’s efforts advanced agriculture, enhanced self-sufficiency, and improved livelihoods.

King Mahendra with fishing net along with other delegates.

Tourism Reforms

He boosted Nepal’s tourism sector by welcoming foreign visitors and creating infrastructure. He built homes, rest houses, taverns, and water taps across the country. Nepal joined the International Union of Official Travel Organization in 1959, forming a dedicated tourism directorate.

In 1960, the first handicraft exhibition occurred, and Himalayan trekking for tourists began. The first tourism act passed in 1964, alongside the establishment of the first travel agency, Mountain Travel Nepal. The Hotel Association of Nepal (HAN) played a pivotal role, and hotels like Soaltee and Annapurna Hotel contributed to tourism growth. King Mahendra’s visit to Rara Lake increased the buzz of the lake and drew more tourists. His efforts laid the foundation for Nepal’s burgeoning tourism industry.

King Mahendra with Chinese delegates.

Political And Social Reforms

King Mahendra brought vital political and social changes. He introduced a new constitution with ‘Hindu Kingdom’ and divided the nation into 14 zones and 75 districts. To ensure fairness, he replaced Royal courts with local ones and separated state powers. The Rastriya Panchayat managed legislation, the Council of Ministers handled execution, and the Supreme Court oversaw justice.

Key institutions like the Office of the Auditor General, Public Service Commission, and Election Commission were set up, regulating elections and improving governance.

Socially, the Nepal Civil Service Act ended Panjani tradition and established the Nepal Public Commission. The Muluki Ain replaced caste and gender bias, while aristocratic privileges in western Nepal were removed. King Mahendra also founded Nepal’s first orphanage, Paropkar Sansthan. His reign shaped Nepal’s governance and social landscape.

Other Development

King Mahendra’s reign marked crucial advancements in Nepal’s infrastructure and education. Notable structures like Narayanhiti Palace, Ratna Mandir, and Lakeside Palace were built under his guidance. He commanded vital projects including Koshi River Barrage, Gandaki dam, and Trisuli Dam for irrigation, flood control, and hydroelectricity.

In education, he founded Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk and Thapathali Engineering Campuses, and Padma Kanya Campus, enhancing higher education, technical training, and women’s opportunities. Introduction os modern communication such as telephone services, radio, TV broadcasts, and a printing press for Nepali books. His education policies and reforms left a lasting impact, modernising Nepal for the future.


The enduring contribution of King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev is a complex one that reflects the intricacies of a nation undergoing political and societal transformation. His reign saw Nepal transitioning from a traditional monarchy to a more modernised and complex political landscape. As Nepal continues its journey in the 21st century, understanding the nuances of King Mahendra’s rule remains essential to comprehending the nation’s history and its path forward.

Appsha Digital

What's your reaction?

Related Posts

World Malala Day

Pakistan's Mingora was the place of Malala Yousafzai's birth on July…