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Rise And Downfall Of The Rana Regime

The Rana regime in Nepal, which lasted over a century, was one of the most major eras in the country's history. Let's look at the short overview on Rise and Downfall of the Rana Regime

So, when did the Rana regime begin and end? The Ranas, a prestigious dynasty of nobles, controlled Nepal from 1846 to 1951, strengthening their authority by crushing opposition to politics and concentrating power in their own hands. 

Political insecurity, economic exploitation, and social inequality characterized the government, with the great majority of Nepalis living in poverty and facing discrimination. The end of the Rana regime in 1951 was a historical event in Nepal’s history, clearing the way for establishing a democratic government and more significant social and economic growth.

This article will examine the rise and downfall of the Rana regime, its impact on Nepali society, and its legacy in the country’s history.

Shree Tin Junga Bahadur Rana

The Rise

After the death of Prithvi Narayan Shah, Nepal’s political instability began with a succession of weak monarchs to rule. Pratap Singh, who succeeded him, died soon after, leaving the kingdom to his infant son Rana Bahadur Shah.

As a result, Nepal was ruled by a succession of regents competing for power and influence, resulting in political instability and insecurity.

The assassination of Gagan Singh and the Kot Parva massacre worsened the situation, resulting in Junga Bahadur Rana becoming Prime Minister and Chief of the Nepalese Army. He centralized his power by arranging marriages with the royal family, which improved his social stature and political authority over Nepal. 

The reign of Junga Bahadur Rana as Prime Minister was defined by dictating governance and exploitation. He stood by his authority by stating that he would restore stability to Nepal. Which was undermined by years of bloodshed and political instability.

On the other hand, his reign was marked by a lack of political freedom and social fairness. With the vast majority of Nepalis living in poverty and facing discrimination. The Rana regime left a lasting mark on Nepali history.

The political instability that marked Nepal’s early years of independence, followed by a period of authoritarian government. Thus had a long-term impact on the country’s political, social, and economic growth. As the country struggles with democratic transition and political changes, strong and stable leadership in Nepal’s politics remains critical.

Last Ruling Rana- Mohan Shamsher JB Rana

The Downfall

Family feuds and efforts to depose Junga Bahadur Rana were always on move in the early twentieth century. Despite these efforts, the Rana regime survived and were strengthened under Junga Bahadur’s leadership. 

However, after he died in 1938, his sons were terminated. A new order of succession was formed, with Dhir Shamsher’s sons being the most powerful. 

Chandra Shamsher started the class separation within the Rana family through marriage, which caused dissatisfaction and resentment among family members. Juddha Shamsher went even further, removing ‘C’ class Ranas from the succession and expelling them from the nation. 

This action turned the ‘C’ class Ranas against the Rana regime and encouraged the emergence of anti-Rana movements. The anti-Rana movement started in response to the Rana regime’s autocratic governance, which crushed criticism and limited freedom of expression.

These movements manifested themselves as Makai Parva, Arya Samaj, and others. On the other hand, Chandra Shamsher oppressed the movement in its early stages. After 1987 B.S., anti-Rana movements such as Charkha Prachar, Prachanda Gorkha, Mahabir School, library episode, Praja Parisad, and Jayatu Sanskritum increased in strength.

Finally, King Tribhuvan’s abandonment of the throne in 2007 B.S. signified the end of the anti-Rana movement. He seeks refuge in the Indian embassy, sparking nationwide protests and demonstrations. This resulted in Nepal’s declaration as a democratic country on 7th Falgun 2007 B.S., effectively ending the Rana regime and bringing a new era to Nepal’s political history.

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